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garudagaruda
The History of Indonesia



1500 - 1670


Great Kings and Trade Empires



Available period links :

  •   100 - 1500
  • Ancient Kingdoms and the Coming of Islam
  • 1500 - 1670
  • Great Kings and Trade Empires
  • 1670 - 1800
  • Court Intrigues and the Dutch
  • 1800 - 1830
  • Chaos and Resistance
  • 1830 - 1910
  • Dutch Imperialisme
  • 1910 - 1940
  • New Nationalism
  • 1940 - 1945
  • Perang Dunia II
  • 1945 - 1950
  • War of Independence
  • 1950 - 1965
  • The Sukarno years
  • 1965 - 1998
  • The Suharto years





    1500

     
    Palembang converts to Islam.  

    1505

     

    Trenggono, grandson of Raden Patah, becomes prince of Demak.

    Local powers on Java around 1500 included:

    Demak which was the chief power in Java in the early 1500s. Nearby Jepara participated in many naval expeditions.

    Surabaya. Some powers that later came under Surabaya include Gresik, home of Sunan Giri, and Pasuruan.

    Banten, which was a Hindu power under Pajajaran until the arrival of Sunan Gunungjati.

    1509

     

    Portuguese visit Melaka for the first time.

    The goal of the Portuguese was to take control of trade. Later trade empires would include Gowa, Banten, and the Dutch VOC or East India Company. The original goal of all of them was money before political power, but they did not always stick to their original goal.

    1511

     

    April Portuguese Admiral Albuquerque sets sail from Goa to Melaka.

    August 10 Albuquerque's forces take Melaka.

    Sultan of Melaka escapes to Riau.

    Portuguese in Melaka destroy a "Javanese" fleet. Their ship sinks with treasure on way back to Goa.

    December Albuquerque sends three ships under da Breu from Melaka to explore eastwards.


    The gate to the Portuguese fortress at Melaka. Melaka was the center of the Portuguese trade empire in the Indies in the 1500s. The Portuguese in Melaka were attacked every few years by the Sultans of Malaya and Sumatra, especially Aceh and Johore. Sometimes alliances would be formed with powers on Java to attack the Portuguese.

    1512

     

    Da Breu expedition travels from Melaka to Madura, Bali, Lombok, Aru and Banda. Two ships are wrecked at Banda. Da Breu returns to Melaka; Francisco Serrão repairs ship and continues to Ambon, Ternate, and Tidore. Serrão offers support to Ternate in a dispute with Tidore--his men build a Portuguese post at Ternate.

    Serrão wrote to Magellan at this time (who formerly served under Albuquerque, but pledged allegiance to Spain after being refused a promotion) telling Magellan about the riches of the Indies.

    1513

     

    A force from Jepara and Palembang attacks the Portuguese in Melaka, but is repulsed.

    March Portuguese send an envoy to King of Pajajaran. Portuguese are allowed to build a fort at Sunda Kelapa (now Jakarta).

    Portuguese make contact with King Udara, son of Girindrawardhana and ruler over the remnant of Majapahit.

    Portuguese build factories at Ternate and Bacan.

    Udara attacks Demak with the help of the King of Klungkung on Bali. Majapahit forces are driven back, but Sunan Ngudung falls in battle. Many more supporters of Majapahit flee to Bali.

    Powers on Sumatra included:

    Aceh, the first major Islamic power in what is now Indonesia. It was founded by local rulers of Lamuri, around today's Banda Aceh, after they were expelled from Pedir (around today's Sigli). After the fall of Melaka to the Portuguese, many Muslim merchants moved their business operations to Aceh, and this caused Aceh to grow as a trading power.

    Palembang where sultans still ruled long after the fall of Srivijaya.

    1514

     
    Ali Mughayat Syah is first Sultan of Aceh. On Bali the King of Gelgel (near today's Klungkung) was the most powerful king in the 1500s.

    1515

     

    First Portuguese visit Timor.

     

    1518

     

    Sultan Mahmud of Melaka takes power at Johore.

    Raden Patah passes away; Yunus becomes Sultan of Demak.

    The Sultanate of Johore was attacked by the Portuguese all through the 1520s.

    1520

     

    Aceh begins taking northeast coast of Sumatra.

    Balinese attack on Lombok.

    Portuguese traders begin visiting Flores and Solor.

    Banjar on Kalimantan converts to Islam.

     

    1521

     

    Yunus leads fleet from Demak and Cirebon against the Portuguese in Melaka. Yunus is killed in battle. Trenggono becomes Sultan of Demak.

    Portuguese take Pasai in Sumatra; Gunungjati leaves Pasai for Mecca.

    Last ship of Magellan expedition around the world sails between Lembata and Pantar islands in Nusa Tenggara.

    Sultan Trenggono is remembered as a ruler who did much to spread Islam throughout East and Central Java.

    1522

     

    February Portuguese expedition under De Brito arrives on Banda.

    May De Brito expedition arrives at Ternate, builds a Portuguese fort.

    Banten, still Hindu, asks for Portuguese help against Muslim Demak.

    Survivors of Magellan's expedition around the world visit Timor.

    Portuguese build fort at Hitu on Ambon.

    Only 18 men survived Magellan's expedition, but they returned to Spain with about a ton of cloves, enough to make them wealthy for life.

    The arrival of Spanish ships was worrisome to the Portuguese, however, who now had to deal with a European competitor in the heart of the Spice Islands.

    1523

     
    Gunungjati returns from Mecca and settles at Demak, marries sister of Sultan Trenggono.  

    1524

     

    Gunungjati and son Hasanuddin do both covert and overt missionary work in West Java to weaken the kingdom of Pajajaran and its alliance with the Portuguese. Local ruler of Banten, formerly dependent on Pajajaran, converts to Islam and joins Demak's side.

    Aceh takes Pasai and Pedir in northern Sumatra.

    About this time much of Java began to convert to Islam, including Banten, Mataram and Central Java, and Surabaya.

    1526

     
    Portuguese build first fort on Timor.  

    1527

      

    Demak conquers Kediri, Hindu remnant of Majapahit state; Sultans of Demak claims to be successors to Majapahit claims; Sunan Kudus takes part.

    Demark takes Tuban.

    Demak, with help from Banten, takes Sunda Kelapa from Pajajaran; renames it Jayakerta. (Credit is given to a "Fatahillah"--or after the Portuguese mispronounciation, "Falatehan"-- but this might be a name given to Sunan Gunungjati.) Pajajaran Kingdom is pushed away from the sea.

    Kingdom of Palakaran on Madura, based at Arosbaya (now Bangkalan), converts to Islam under Kyai Pratanu.

    Expeditions from Spain and Mexico try to drive the Portuguese from Maluku.


    Masjid at Kudus, from the early 1500s.

    Among the notable figures of this period are the Wali Songo or Nine Walis.

    See also Notes on Islam in Modern Indonesia.

    1529

     

    Demak conquers Madiun.

    Kings of Spain and Portugal agree that Maluku should belong to Portugal, and the Philippines should belong to Spain.

    Spain and Portugal had divided the entire world between themselves in 1494. They continued to argue for years over the exact position of the dividing circle. A 1524 conference sponsored by the Pope did not settle matters.

    1530

     

    Salahuddin is Sultan of Aceh.

    Surabaya and Pasuruan submit to Demak. Demak takes Balambangan, the last Hindu state in easternmost Java.

    Gowa begins expanding from Makassar.

    Banten extends influence over Lampung.

     

    1536

     

    Major Portuguese attack on Johore.

    Antonio da Galvão becomes governor of Portuguese post at Ternate; founds Portuguese post at Ambon.

    Portuguese take Sultan Tabariji of Ternate to Goa due to suspicions of anti-Portuguese activity, replace him with his brother.

     

    1537

     

    Acehnese attack on Melaka fails. Salahuddin of Aceh is replaced by Alaudin Riayat Syah I.

     

    1539

     

    Aceh attacks the Bataks to their south.

     

    1540

     

    Portuguese in contact with Gowa.

    Sultanate of Butung founded.

     

    1545

     
    Demak conquers Malang.

    Gowa builds fort at Ujung Pandang.

     

    1546

     

    Demak invades Balambangan without success.

    Trenggono of Demak dies and is succeeded by Prawata. His son-in-law Joko Tingkir expands power from Pajang (near present Sukoharjo).

    St. Francis Xavier travels to Morotai, Ambon, and Ternate.

    Catholicism (Katolik), one of Indonesia's five religions.

    Around this time Portuguese missionaries began to spread the Catholic religion in Indonesia, especially in the east. Today Catholicism is one of Indonesia's recognized religions.

    1547

     
    Aceh attacks Melaka.  

    1550

     
    Portuguese begin building forts on Flores.  

    1551

     

    Johore attacks Portuguese Melaka with help from Jepara.

    Force from Ternate takes control of Sultanate of Jailolo on Halmahera with Portuguese help.

     

    1552

     

    Hasanuddin breaks away from Demak and founds Sultanate of Banten, then takes Lampung for the new Sultanate.

    Aceh sends embassy to the Ottoman sultan in Istanbul.

     

    1558

     

    Leiliato leads a force from Ternate to attack the Portuguese at Hitu.

    Portuguese build a fortress on Bacan.

    Ki Ageng Pemanahan receives Mataram district from Joko Tinggir, ruling at Pajang.

    Smallpox epidemic at Ternate.

     

    1559

     

    Portuguese missionaries land at Timor.

    Khairun becomes Sultan of Ternate.

    Sultan Khairun was friendly to St. Francis Xavier, and was known to be a skillful politician who manipulated the Portuguese into doing what he wanted while claiming to be a Portuguese ally. However, in the end the Portuguese threw him in prison and tried to poison him when he would not yield lands to them.

    1560

     

    Portuguese found mission and trading post at Panarukan, in easternmost Java.

    Spanish establish a presence at Manado.

     

    1561

     

    Sultan Prawata of Demak passes away.

    Portuguese Dominican mission founded on Solor.

     

    1564

     

    Smallpox epidemic at Ambon.

     

    1565

     

    Aceh sacks Johore.

    Kutai on Kalimantan converts to Islam.

     

    1566

     

    Portuguese Dominican mission on Solor builds a stone fortress.

     

    1568

     
    Unsuccessful attack by Aceh on Portuguese Melaka.  

    1569

     
    Portuguese build wooden fortress on Ambon island.  

    1570

     

    Aceh attacks Johore again, but fails.

    Sultan Khairun of Ternate signs a treaty of friendship with the Portuguese, but is found poisoned the next day. Portuguese agents are suspected. Babullah becomes Sultan (until 1583), and vows to drive the Portuguese out of their fortress.

    Maulana Yusup becomes Sultan of Banten.

     

    1571

     
    Alaudin Riayet Shah dies, disorder in Aceh until 1607.  

    1574

     

    Jepara leads unsuccessful attack on Melaka.

     

    1575

     

    Sultan Babullah expels the Portuguese from Ternate. Portuguese build a fort on Tidore instead.

    The Portuguese in Ternate were under siege in their fortress for five years, and never received help from Melaka or Goa in India.

    1576

     

    Portuguese build fort at the present site of the city of Ambon.

     

    1577

     

    Ki Ageng Pemanahan founds Kota Gede (near today's Yogya).

     

    1579

     

    Banten takes the remaining part of Pajajaran, converts it to Islam.

    November Sir Francis Drake of England, after raiding Spanish ships and ports in America, arrives at Ternate. Sultan Babullah, who also hated the Spanish, pledges friendship to England.


    A Portuguese map from the late 1500s showing the Indies in rough outlines. This information was kept secret by the Spanish and Portuguese until Dutch and English ships started to make trips to the Indies just before 1600.

    1580

     

    Maulana Muhammad becomes Sultan of Banten.

    Portugal falls under Spanish crown; Portuguese colonial enterprises are disregarded.

    Drake visits Sulawesi and Java, on the way back to England.

    Ternate takes control of Butung.

    In the 1500s, the Netherlands were an important business center for Europe, where products from Russia, Scandinavia, Africa, Asia and America were bought and sold. The Netherlands during that time was ruled by Spain. By 1581, the Netherlands had rebelled against the King of Spain and had begun to govern themselves. But since Spain now had control of the Portuguese colonies, the Spanish could prevent Dutch businessmen from easy access to spices from the Indies. This was one reason that Dutch ships began to make their own voyages direct to the Indies in the 1590s.

    1581

     

    About this time, Kyai Ageng Pemanahan takes over Mataram district (which had been promised to him by Joko Tingkir, who delayed until Sunan Kalijaga of the Nine Walis pressed him), changes name to Kyai Gedhe Mataram.

     

    1584

     

    Sutawijaya succeeds his father Kyai Gedhe Mataram as local ruler of Mataram, ruling from Kota Gede.

     

    1585

     

    Sultan of Aceh sends a letter to Elizabeth I of England.

     

    1587

     

    Sutawijaya defeats Pajang and Joko Tingkir dies; lineage passes definitely to Sutawijaya. Mount Merapi erupts.

    Portuguese in Melaka attack Johore.

    Portuguese sign a truce with the Sultan of Aceh.

    Sir Thomas Cavendish of England visits Java.

     

    1588

     
    Sutawijaya changes name to Senopati; takes Pajang and Demak.


    Senopati in a traditional portrait.

    From Senopati one can easily trace the lineage of today's Sultan of Yogya and Susuhunan of Surakarta. Traditionally, the line is traced back all the way to the kings of Majapahit.

    After this point, the power in central Java was definitely in the Mataram district, around today's Yogyakarta and Surakarta, rather than around Demak.

    1590

     
    Original village of Medan founded.  

    1591

     

    Senopati takes Madiun, then Kediri.

    Sir James Lancaster of England reaches Aceh and Penang, but his mission is a failure.

    Ternate attacks Portuguese in Ambon.

     

    1593

     
    Ternate lays siege to the Portuguese in Ambon again.  

    1595

     

    April 2 Dutch expedition under De Houtman leaves for Indies.

    Suriansyah makes Banjar on Kalimantan a Sultanate (later Banjarmasin).

    Portuguese build fort at Ende, Flores.

    Many Dutch sailors had worked on Spanish and Portuguese ships. When De Houtman's Dutch expedition set sail, there were experienced crewmen available to guide them to the Indies.

    1596

     

    June 5 De Houtman expedition reaches Sumatra.

    June 23 De Houtman expedition reaches Banten. The initial reception is friendly, but after some rough behavior by the Dutch, the Sultan of Banten, along with the Portuguese stationed in Banten, shell the Dutch ships.

    The De Houtman expedition continues along north coast of Java. A ship is lost to pirates. More bad behavior leads to misunderstandings and violence on Madura.

    Abul Mufakir becomes Sultan of Banten.

     

    1597

     

    Some members of De Houtman expedition settle on Bali and refuse to leave.

    A Portuguese fleet under Lourenzo de Brito decides, contrary to instructions, to seek retribution from the Sultan of Banten for doing business with Dutch traders. The fleet is defeated by Banten and forced to retreat.

    Remnants of the De Houtman expedition (89 of an original 248 sailors) return to Holland with spices.

    Senopati attacks Banten, but is driven back.


    Title page from the published account of the de Houtman expedition. The Spanish and Portuguese had maintained secrecy about the results of their explorations. The Dutch broke their monopoly on information.

    1598

     

    22 Dutch ships in five expeditions set out for the east. The Netherlands States-General suggests that competing companies should merge. De Houtman's second expedition includes John Davis, an English spy. Van Noort sets off to sail around the southern tip of America to the Indies.

    Senopati attacks western territories of Surabaya.

    The De Houtman voyage was actually not profitable, (partly due to de Houtman's own poor judgment and general recklessness) but the businessmen of the Netherlands could see the future potential in the spice trade, and dozens of new voyages were planned to follow its path. This period of is sometimes called the "wilde vaart".

    1599

     

    Dutch expedition under Van Neck reaches Maluku, begins successful trading on Banda, Ambon and Ternate.

    June De Houtman is killed in conflict with Sultan of Aceh.

    Dutch churches begin calls for missionary work in the Indies.

     

    1600

     

    Van Noort expedition attacks Spanish at Guam.

    Portuguese establish trading post at Jepara.

    September Dutch Admiral Van den Haghen makes an alliance with the Hitu against the Portuguese in Ambon.

    December 31 Elizabeth I of England charters East India Company.

     

    1601

     

    Senopati succeeded by Krapyak in Mataram.

    Portuguese send a fleet from Goa, India, to drive the Dutch from the Indies.

    English set up fort at Banda.

    Aceh sends two ambassadors to Europe to observe and report on the situation to the Sultan.

    December 25-27 Five Dutch ships defeat the Portuguese fleet of 30 ships in battle in Banten harbor.

     

    1602

     
    March 20 Dutch companies combine to form Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC); led by Heeren XVII representing different regions of the Netherlands; States-General gives VOC power to raise armies, build forts, negotiate treaties and wage war in Asia.

    VOC begins sending large, well-armed ships to the Indies (38 in the first three years).

    VOC establishes post at Gresik.

    Sir James Lancaster leads an (English) East India Company expedition, reaches Aceh, and builds a trading post at Banten.

    The Dutch East India Company was given most of the powers of a sovereign state, partly because communication between the Netherlands and Asia was so slow that colonial activities simply could not be directed from Amsterdam.

    (Until 1800 in this time-line, Dutch activities are marked with a VOC for East India Company.)

    1603

     

    Official VOC trading post founded at Banten.

     

    1604

     

    English East India Company expedition under Sir Henry Middleton visits Ternate, Tidore, Ambon, and Banda.

     

    1605

     

    Portuguese at Ambon surrender to ships under VOC.

    King of Gowa converts to Islam, but other kings of the area refuse invitation to convert. Gowa attacks its neighbors and converts them to Islam.

    VOC sends expeditions to Banda, Irian Jaya, northern Australia.

    The chief minister to the King of Gowa in these days was named Matoaya. Besides presiding over the conversion of Gowa and Makassar to Islam, he encouraged the establishment of Makassar as a free port opposed to Portuguese or Dutch control, and started a local industry to manufacture firearms, to maintain Gowa's strength against outside forces.

    1606

     

    Spanish take Ternate and Tidore.

    VOC makes unsuccessful attack on Portuguese Melaka.

    VOC begins trading at Banjarmasin.

     

    1607

     

    Iskandar Muda is Sultan of Aceh.

    May Sultan of Ternate appeals to the VOC for help against the Spanish.

    Aceh under Iskandar Muda and his successor, Iskandar Thani, was a center of Islamic scholarship and debate.

    1608

     

    Gowa begins three years of war against the neighboring Kingdom of Bone.

     

    1609

     

    Portuguese fortress on Bacan falls to VOC.

     

    1610

     
    Krapyak of Mataram starts period of heavy attacks on Surabaya.

    Post of Governor-General is created for VOC in Asia, advised by Raad van Indie (Council of the Indies).

     

    1611

     

    English begin setting up many posts in the Indies, including at Makassar, Jepara, Aceh and Jambi.

    Dutch set up post at Jayakerta.

    Gowa conquers Bone, converts it to Islam.

     

    1613

     

    April 18 Dutch take Solor from Portuguese. Portuguese Dominicans move headquarters to Larantuka, Flores.

    Iskandar Muda of Aceh defeats Johore, burns down the city, carries away the Sultan of Johore and VOC representatives.

    Mataram forces burn down Gresik; Krapyak asks VOC in Maluku for help against Surabaya.

    VOC sets up post at Jepara.

    VOC sets up first post on Timor.

    Krapyak succeeded by Sultan Agung.

     

    1614

     
    Johore throws out Aceh forces, creates alliance Palembang, Jambi, and other Sultanates against Aceh

    Aceh wins naval battle against Portuguese at Bintan, continues on to attack Melaka.

    Agung attacks Surabayan territories.

    VOC sends ambassador to Agung.

    Bandung founded.

    Sultan Agung in a traditional portrait.
    Agung was the greatest ruler of Mataram. At one point, all of Java except for Banten and Batavia was under his rule.

    1615

     
    VOC closes post at Gowa, hostilities drag on for years.

    First Dutch Reformed church in the east founded at Ambon.

    English build warehouse at Jayakerta.

    Dutch abandon Solor after just two years.

    Protestantism (Kristen), one of Indonesia's five religions.

    The Dutch introduced the fifth of Indonesia's recognized religions: Protestant Christianity. Beside the missionary work on Java, there were soon many "orang Kristen" around Manado on Sulawesi, in Ambon, and around Kupang on Timor and nearby Roti.

    The VOC, being mostly a business, had very little interest in spreading religion. However, it banned to practice of Catholicism wherever it could.

    1616

     
    VOC military expedition against Banda.  

    1617

     

    Aceh takes Pahang.

    Agung defeats Surabaya at Pasuruan, defeats Surabayan expedition to his rear; Pajang rebels, Agung destroys Pajang and moves inhabitants to Mataram.

    Gowa extends control over Sumbawa.

    "Monopolies" and "smuggling" in these days were sometimes defined by contracts and treaties, but at other times a "monopoly" was simply declared unilaterally. Some of the "smuggling" that occurred would just be called "competition" today.

    In 1615-1616, the Schouten expedition became the first to sail around Cape Horn at the the southern tip of South America, then made the first visit by Europeans to many south Pacific islands. By the time they arrived in Batavia (Jakarta), Coen had them jailed for violating the V.O.C.'s monopoly, and confiscated their ships.

    (Years later, in 1722, the Dutch explorer Roggeveen would run into the same trouble after discovering Easter Island.)

    1618

     

    Jan Pieterzoon Coen becomes Governor-General of VOC.

    English merchants attack Chinese ships in Banten in a dispute over the price of pepper. Coen begins secretly fortifying the VOC warehouses at Jayakerta to the east.

    December Sultan of Banten encourages English to drive Dutch out of Jayakerta. Coen leaves for Maluku to muster ships and soldiers.

    Agung bans sale of rice to VOC. Agung's governor of Jepara attacks VOC post there; Dutch burn down much of Jepara in retaliation.

    Dutch reoccupy Solor.

     

    1619

     

    January English force Dutch surrender at Jayakerta, but Banten forces take over from English in surprise move. The English and the Pangeran of Jayakerta retreat.

    March 12 Dutch rename post at Jayakerta to Batavia (today's Jakarta).

    May Coen passes through Jepara, and burns down the city again, including the English trading post.

    May 28 Coen arrives at Jayakerta, and burns down the original town of Jayakerta, leaving only the Dutch post of Batavia remaining to become VOC headquarters.

    Agung takes Tuban from Surabaya, destroying the city.

    Agung was not pleased with the Dutch taking Jayakerta, since he had intended to take it himself. Likewise, the Sultan of Banten did not want the English to take it, for the same reason.

    1620

     

    VOC under Coen almost exterminates population of Banda to prevent "smuggling". Survivors settle on small islands near Seram.

    Aceh takes Kedah.

    Gowa extends influence over Sumbawa.

    Rahmatullah becomes Sultan of Banjar on Kalimantan.


    Jan Pieterszoon Coen
    The most aggressive Governor-General of the V.O.C.

    One of Coen's goals was to make the VOC strong enough on its own that it did not have to depend on the goodwill of neighboring rulers. He intended to do this by changing the VOC from a trade empire to an empire that ruled actual territories, then settling those territories with colonists from the Netherlands. Military strength was important, both for maintaining a position of power among the local kings and sultans, and for keeping the Spanish, Portuguese and English away.

    For Coen, the VOC was more than a business, but for neighboring rulers, such as Sultan Agung, and even for government officials in China, the VOC were mere merchants, and they refused to give VOC officials the same standing in protocol that they gave the representatives of other kings or sultans.

    1621

     

    British found trading post at Ambon.

     

    1622

     

    Mataram navy defeats Sukadana (an ally of Surabaya in West Kalimantan), and destroy the city.

    Agung and VOC make overtures to each other.

     

    1623

     

    VOC agents in Ambon arrest, torture and execute English agents on charges of conspiracy.

    Aceh sacks Johore.

    Carstenz expedition for VOC explores southern coast of Irian Jaya.

    Coen returns to the Netherlands. Carpentier is new Governor-General of the VOC.

    VOC takes nominal claim to Aru Islands.

     

    1624

     
    Aceh takes Nias.

    Sultan Agung conquers Madura, and takes 40,000 prisoners. Raden Praseno, a grandson of Pratanu, is named Pangeran Cakraningrat I of Madura by Agung.

     

    1625

     

    Agung dams Brantas River to cut off water supply from Surabaya, which finally surrenders.

    Cirebon is an ally of Agung.

    Epidemics and ruin of war spread through Java.

    Abul Fath becomes Sultan of Banten.

    In 1625 the first "hongi" raids took place in Maluku. These were attacks, usually by local allies of the VOC, against anyone who was growing cloves without authorization of the VOC.

    By this time, the VOC was probably the largest business enterprise anywhere in the world, with tens of thousands of employees. The territories controlled by the VOC were not only in Indonesia: in the mid-1600s, they also included Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and the Cape area in what is now South Africa. The VOC also had "factories", warehouses and offices in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Yemen, and Canton in China.

    1627

     

    Coen returns from the Netherlands to serve as Governor-General of the V.O.C. again.

    December 25 Soldiers from Banten infiltrate the fortress of Batavia, kill some guards, and escape, but do little damage.

    Around this time, Sultan Agung forced the removal of the entire population of many villages in the Priangan (around today's Bandung) for disobedience. Around 1200 men were sent back to Mataram from these villages, and executed.

    1628

     

    Agung sends army against VOC in Batavia; dams Ciliwung River in attempt to deny fresh water to the VOC. He fails to oust the Dutch, who prevent his army from receiving supplies by sea. Commanders of the Mataram army are executed for failure.

    Last of the English leave Banda.

     

    1629

     

    Agung attacks Batavia again. He is defeated, although Coen dies during the siege.

    Banten, fearing Agung now more than the VOC, pleads for peace with the VOC.

    Iskandar Muda sends navy of Aceh against Portuguese Melaka, but the Aceh navy is destroyed.

    September 20 Coen passes away.

    Introduction of sugar cultivation in Banten.

     

    1630

     

    Dutch abandon Solor, which is retaken by the Portuguese.

     

    1631

     

    Agung suppresses rebellion at Sumedang.

     

    1633

     

    Agung raids east Java; the Hindu kingdom of Balambangan asks for VOC help and is refused. Balambangan then asks the King of Gelgel in Bali for help.

    War between VOC and Banten.

    Aceh takes the Indrapura area of Minangkabau.

     

    1634

     
    Dutch arrest Kakiali, leader of Hitu in Maluku, on charges of smuggling. This was the "mercantilist" age of trade empires. There were many powers that wanted to create trade empires: the Dutch through the VOC, the English, Banten, and Gowa were among them. There was no such thing as "free trade" under these empires. The VOC especially wanted total control of trade, and any selling to anyone outside the VOC was considered "smuggling".

    1635

     

    Agung tries to take Balambangan, but is defeated by Balinese forces.

    VOC signs treaty with Kutai on Kalimantan.

     

    1636

     
    Iskandar Thani becomes Sultan of Aceh; supports Islamic learning.

    Agung begins conquest of easternmost Java.

    Agung suppresses a revolt in Giri.

    Agung, realizing that he cannot defeat Dutch, makes overtures towards VOC.

    Van Diemen becomes Governor-General of VOC.

    Portuguese abandon posts on Solor after six years.

    VOC bans all private correspondence (until 1701).

     

    1637

     

    VOC attacks Ternate.

    VOC releases Kakiali, who pledges friendship to VOC but makes anti-Dutch alliance between Hitu, Ternate, and Gowa.

    Local Muslims overcome Portuguese fortress at Ende on Flores.

    Agung gives permission for Portuguese and Catholic refugees from Batavia to settle around Jepara.

    Agung finally takes Balambangan in easternmost Java. The area is devastated by warfare.

    Palembang and Banjarmasin send ambassadors to make homage to Agung.

    Ar-Raniri arrives in Aceh from Gujarat in India.

    Around this time the VOC started pushing the Portuguese out of many of their posts in Nusa Tenggara.

    Ar-Raniri was a great writer and scholar in Aceh's golden age. Among other things, he wrote "Garden of Kings", a book about Islam and the scientific knowledge of the day. However, he was also a controversial figure in Aceh, and he returned to India in 1644.

    1639

     

    Chief minister Matoaya of Gowa is succeeded by his son Pattingalloang.

    Unlike his father, Pattingalloang did not maintain good relations with the Bugis. The bad feeling would eventually lead some Bugis to side with the VOC against Gowa and Makassar.

    1640

     

    Bima on Sumbawa converts to Islam and becomes a Sultanate.

    Portugal regains independent crown from Spain.

    Portuguese abandon trading post at Jepara.

    Cirebon becomes a dependency of Mataram

     

    1641

     

    Taj ul-Alam becomes Sultana of Aceh, starts period of female rulers; Johore and Aceh settle differences.

    January 14 VOC takes Melaka from Portuguese, with help from the Sultan of Johore.

    Sultan of Johore opens ports in Riau to all traders.

    Kakiali and Hitu attack VOC on Ambon.

    The VOC takeover of Melaka was the real end of Portuguese importance in the region. But after losing Melaka, some Portuguese started trading with Gowa on Sulawesi.

    After Taj ul-Alam became ruler of Aceh, the centralized power in Aceh lessened, regional ruler gained more power, and Aceh's tributaries began to show their independence.

    With the English and Portuguese almost gone, and Batavia and Ambon relatively secure from neighboring rulers, this was the most profitable time for the VOC.

    1642

     

    VOC gets monopoly on trade with Palembang by treaty.

    Hidayatullah becomes Sultan of Banjar on Kalimantan.

    Tasman explores coasts of Irian Jaya for VOC on voyage back from New Zealand.

    "Statutes of Batavia", based on Roman law, are introduced as a legal code for VOC territories.

     

    1643

     
    VOC has Kakiali murdered, continue drive to take Hitu.  

    1645

     

    Agung begins building royal tombs at Imogiri, (near today's Yogya).

    Mandarsyah becomes Sultan of Ternate with VOC help.

    VOC established outpost at Perak.

     

    1646

     

    Sultan Agung dies, and is succeeded by Susuhunan Amangkurat I. Mataram controls all Java, more or less, except Banten and Batavia. Relations between Amangkurat I and the VOC are good in the beginning.

    VOC finally takes Hitu.

    Dutch arrive again on Solor, abandoned by the Portuguese ten years earlier.

    Portuguese begin building settlement at the present site of Kupang on western Timor.

    VOC builds trading post in the Tanimbar Islands.

     

    1647

     

    Amangkurat I moves court to Plered near Karta.

    Mataram kingdom loses Balambangan in easternmost Java to Balinese forces.

     

    1648

     

    Cakraningrat II takes power in Madura, under Mataram.

     

    1650

     

    VOC intervenes in uprising against Sultan Mandarsyah of Ternate, sparking civil war.

    Amangkurat I orders Cirebon to attack Banten.

    Musta'in Billah becomes Sultan of Banjar on Kalimantan.

     

    1651

     
    VOC reopens post at Jepara; Amangkurat I begins interfering in coastal trade.

    Sultan Ageng begins rule at Banten (not to be confused with Sultan Agung of Mataram).

    VOC takes Kupang on western Timor; Portuguese move to Lifau, in what is now East Timor.

    VOC outpost at Perak is destroyed.

     

    1652

     

    VOC takes Sultan Mandarsyah of Ternate to Batavia, makes him sign agreement not to grow cloves, starts military moves against opposing faction in Ternate.

    Amangkurat I bans the export of rice or timber.

    Hongi raids destroy clove cultivation on Buru.

    Tensions grow between the VOC and Gowa.

     

    1655

     
    Amangkurat I orders that no boats of any kind shall set sail from his ports.  

    1656

     

    VOC deports population of Hoamoal near Ternate to Ambon.

     

    1657

     

    Amangkurat I attacks Banten again.

    VOC forces population of Buru to relocate to Kaleji Bay.

     

    1658

     

    VOC sets up post at Manado.

    War between VOC and Palembang.

     

    1659

     

    VOC forces burn down Palembang, and reestablish the VOC post.

    Amangkurat I has several family members murdered, including the mother of the future Amangkurat II.

    VOC builds fort in the Aru Islands, but soon abandons it.

     

    1660

     

    VOC attacks Gowa, destroys Portuguese ships in harbor, and forces peace treaty on Sultan Hasanuddin of Gowa.

    Arung Palakka of Bone rebels against Gowa; retreats with supporters to Butung.

    Buleleng begins drive to become power on Bali; King of Klungkung remains as "Dewa Agung" or chief king.

    Amangkurat I closes ports again; VOC leaves Jepara.

    Formerly Bali had answered to the King at Gelgel. Around this time, the kingdom split into nine states:

    Badung
    Bangli
    Buleleng
    Gianyar
    Jembrana
    Karangasem
    Klungkung
    Mengwi
    Tabanan

    1661

     

    Court rebellion against Amangkurat I.

    Banten takes diamond-bearing area of Landak on Kalimantan.

    Amangkurat I had a reputation for being cruel and unpredictable. Besides his disastrous interference in the economy, at one time he had many of the Islamic scholars in Mataram killed, then took their former judicial powers for himself, turning himself into an absolute ruler.

    1662

     

    Portuguese headquarters in the east is moved from Larantuka, Flores to Lifau (today Oecussi or Pantemakassar) in what is now East Timor.

    VOC signs treaty with chiefs on Roti.

     

    1663

     

    Spanish abandon post at Tidore.

    VOC allows Arung Palakka and followers to settle at Batavia.

    Banten begins direct trade with Manila.

    July 6 Treaty of Painan: coastal areas of Minangkabau, including Padang, become a protectorate of the VOC, which guarantees them security against raids from Aceh.

    By the end of the 1660s, Banten was trading directly with China, Japan, Thailand, India and Arabia, using its own ships to compete with English, French, Danish and VOC traders. Sultan Ageng of Banten was a strong opponent of the VOC monopoly who insisted on promoting trade with other European, Arab and Asian traders as he pleased.

    1666

     

    VOC sends out a fleet under Admiral Cornelis Speelman, with Bugis soldiers under Arung Palakka and Ambonese soldiers under "Captain Jonker", to settle issues in Gowa and Maluku.

     

    1667

     

    VOC expedition under Speelman lands at Butung, and clears the island of Gowa forces.

    Speelman expedition forces the Sultan of Tidore (now free of Spanish presence) to submit to the VOC. A peace treaty is signed between Ternate and Tidore, now both under VOC control.

    The future Amangkurat II begins seeking VOC help against his father.

    English give up claims to Banda in exchange for Manhattan Island in America.

     

    1668

     

    Arung Palakka returns to Bone, sparking a popular revolt against the Sultan of Gowa.

    Speelman expedition finally defeats Gowa.

    November 18 Treaty of Bungaya: Gowa submits to VOC control, and Sultan Hasanuddin has no influence outside the general area of the city of Makassar.

    VOC extends claims to Sumbawa and Flores after the defeat of Gowa.

    Bugis leaving the confusion on Sulawesi found Samarinda on Kalimantan.

    VOC builds a fort at Menggala in Lampung.

    By this time, the Portuguese in Makassar and Gowa had fled to Flores, or even to Macao or Thailand.

    1669

     

    Sultan Hasanuddin of Gowa passes away; continuing troubles against the VOC in Gowa finally end.

    VOC traders at Banjarmasin are massacred.

     






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